Zulfiqar Ali (he/him )
Hydraulics and Irrigation Engineering; Planning and Design of Hydropower Projects; Design of Hydraulic Structures; Structural Engineering
Fields of Research (FoR):
Hydraulics of Barrages / Head Regulating Structures; Design of Hydropower Projects Physical and numerical modeling of hydraulic structures, seepage and uplift studies.
Barrages, Energy Dissipation Systems, Stilling Basins, Rehabilitation of Barrages /Head-works / Head Regulators.
Student Advising Schedule:
8:00 AM to 4:00 PM
Dr. Zulfiqar Ali was Professor of Civil Engineering, having taught and carried on research in hydraulics and water resources engineering and management at the University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore from 1985 until his retirement in 2017. He graduated in Structural Engineering from UET, Lahore and then completed his PhD in Hydraulic Engineering from University of Newcastle upon Tyne. His current professional interests include design and rehabilitation of barrages, energy dissipation systems, and stilling basins. He wrote thirteen research publications on hydraulics of barrages in national and international journals. He worked as a Campus Coordinator Narowal Campus, UET Lahore for about two and half years. Since 2003, he has been actively providing advisory services to the construction industry in the capacity of a Chief Engineer / Hydraulic and Structural Specialist and subsequently established his own consulting firm, called Lead Engineering Services Pakistan (LESPAK). Some of the projects planned and designed by him include Satpara Dam, Akhori Dam, Jinnah Barrage Rehabilitation and Modernization Project, Battar Hydropower Project (AJK), Dhannan Hydropower Project (AJK), Sharian Hydropower Project (AJK), Jhing II Hydropower project (AJK), Riali II Hydropower (AJK), restoration of 30 MW Jagran, and Kundel Shahi Hydropower Projects, etc. In his free time, he likes to spend time on his farm.
|1.||Professor, Head of Department,||Department of Civil Engineering and Technology, University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus. (From 05.01.2018 – to date).|
|2.||Associate Dean||Department of Civil Engineering and Technology, University of Lahore, Gujrat Campus. (From 10.05.2018 – to date).|
|3.||Professor||Civil Engineering Department, UET Lahore. (From 22.11.2004 – 01.11.2017)|
|4.||Campus Coordinator||UET Lahore, Narowal Campus, (From 11-04-2014 – 20.07.2016)|
|5.||Chief Executive||Lead Engineering Services Pakistan (LESPAK), From 01.11.2009 – to date)|
|6.||Associate Professor||Civil Engineering Department, UET Lahore. (From 30.06.2001 – 31.11.2004)|
|7.||Assistant Professor||Civil Engineering Department, UET Lahore. (From 13.05.1992 – 26.06.2002)|
|8.||Lecturer||Civil Engineering Department, UET Lahore. (From 08.10.1986 – 12.05.1992)|
|No.||Degree / Program of Study Name||Awarding Body/University/Institute|
|1.||B.Sc. (Math, Physics)||University of Punjab|
|2.||B.Sc. Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|3.||MS Structural Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|4.||PhD||University of Newcastle upon Tyne, UK|
MY RESEARCH ACTIVITIES: JOURNALS ARTICLES / BOOK CHAPTERS / PATENTS
Experimental and numerical studies on orifice spillway aerator of Bunji Dam
Journal of Chinese Institute of Engineers
Volume 43, 2020 -Issue 1
|Bunji Dam spillway, which is proposed to be constructed on the Indus River in Pakistan, was selected for physical and numerical modeling of the aerators. Three air vent sizes and five ramp angles were constructed to assess the hydraulic performance of the aerator. The numerical model was formulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)—FLOW 3D. The air vent size showed a significant impact on the dimensionless performance indicators of the aerators. Empirical equations were developed based on the outputs of physical and numerical models of the aerator. It is believed that the proposed equations will be useful for the estimation of non-dimensional cavity length and air entrainment coefficient of the orifice spillway aerators.|
Assessment of Sustainable Groundwater Extraction Rate for Quetta City Using MODFLOW
Pak. J. Engg. Appl. Sci. Vol. 24 January, 2019 (p. 1–10)
|Groundwater flow model MODFLOW (MODFLOW Pro) was applied for the Quetta city to simulate the behavior of aquifer under stresses. The data regarding groundwater levels, tube wells, pumping rates and aquifer parameters etc. were collected from Water and Power Development Authority (WAPDA). The data showed that the abstraction rate for the city has increased from 32.25 MGPD to 57.76 MGPD over 20 years. The water balance showed that 20% of the total precipitation was ultimately going to the groundwater as recharge. It was observed from the model results that the water table under Quetta city has declined at the average rate of 0.91 m/year since 1995 to 2014.|
Evaluation of Air Vents and Ramp Angles of Orifice Spillways.
J. Engg. and Appl. Sci. Vol. 35 No. 1 January – July 2016 (P69-77)
|The performance of steep slope (θ > 30o) orifice spillway aerators by varying air vent size and ramp angles were experimentally studied. Three air vents of different sizes and five ramps with different angles were tested on a physical model of Bunji dam spillway, which was constructed at Irrigation Research Station Nandipur, Gujranwala. In each case, the cavity length, cavity pressure, flow velocity and water depth at the aerator were measured by changing operating conditions. Non-dimensional jet length (λ), air entrainment co-efficient (β) and non-dimensional cavity pressure (Pn) were computed to evaluate the performance of the aerator against ramp angle and air vent size. Results noted an improvement in the performance of aerator with the increase of air vent size. However, the ramp initially improved the performance of the aerator but at higher reservoir level with large gate opening, no significant improvement in the performance of the aerator was noted, rather negative impact was observed due to reduction in cavity pressure.|
Catastrophe of Flood 2010 at Taunsa Barrage; Review of Technical Findings of Punjab Judicial Tribunal Report.
Science, Technology and Development 35 (1):2016.
|In the year 2010, high intensity and continuous rainfall in the upper catchment of Indus River resulted exceptionally high flood in Punjab at Jinnah, Chashma and Taunsa Barrages. This unprecedented flood passed through Jinnah Barrage with some damages to its Left Guide Bank and with a control breach in its Right Guide Bank; whereas at Chashma barrage the flood passed safely. The flood could not pass Taunsa barrage and its Left Marginal Bund (LMB) collapsed; which resulted in more than 125,000 cusec of roaring flood towards human settlement of District Muzaffar Garh. The Punjab Judicial Tribunal investigated this human tragedy and recommended some serious penalties to those responsible. This research paper critically reviews the Tribunal’s findings regarding the collapse of LMB of Taunsa Barrage.|
Launching / Disappearance of Stone Apron, Block Floor Downstream of the Taunsa Barrage and Unprecedented Drift of the River towards KotAddu Town.
Science, Technology and Development 34 (1), 2015, (P60-65)
|Taunsa barrage located on the Indus River, Pakistan was remodeled/rehabilitated and modernized in year 2005-08, spending more than eleven billion rupees borrowed from the World Bank. Major changes were made in its energy dissipation system/stilling basin and 7 ft high sub-weir/wall was constructed at 800 ft distance downstream of the barrage. The barrage showed poor performance during 2010 floods which caused an uncontrolled breach in its left marginal bund. The sounding and probing data of years 2010-14 showed the development of deep scour pits downstream of the barrage stilling basin and the situation at present is horrifying. The whole stone apron has been washed away, whereas, the concrete block floor along with inverted filters partially or completely disappeared. Moreover, the has river changed its route about 2.5-3.0 km towards Kot Addu, indicating regulation of flow with gates has vanished as the sub-weir is developing uniform flow on the downstream. This study investigates the performance of energy dissipation system in pre and post remodeled scenarios of the barrage and causes for extraordinary drift of the river towards Kot Addu. This research works concludes that remodeling of stilling basin is not rational and is the cause of launching of stone apron and block floor along with inverted filters. Further, construction of sub weir downstream of barrage is responsible for the drift of Indus River towards Kot Addu town.|
Surface Flow Hydraulics of Taunsa Barrage: Before and after Rehabilitation.
Pakistan Journal Science, Vol. 62, No. 2, June2010
|The surface flow analyses were carried out using computer software HEC-RAS to establish the location of hydraulic jump for various tail water level scenarios. The RAS model results indicate that under the existing condition (without subsidiary) the tail water depth was sufficient to develop hydraulic jump over the glacis.|
Performance Assessment of Taunsa Barrage Subsidiary Weir for Long Term Rehabilitation Planning.
Pak. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci. Vol. 7, Jul., 2010 (p65-70)
|Taunsa barrage has been rehabilitated by constructing a subsidiary weir at 800 ft distance from the barrage crest. While designing rehabilitation project at Jinnah barrage the Detail Design Consultants proposed a similar structure, the subsidiary weir to be constructed at 600 ft form the barrage crest. Arguments have emerged regarding hydraulic justification of subsidiary weir being proposed at the Jinnah barrage. It looks imperative that the energy dissipation systems of both the barrages are to be reviewed. Furthermore, suitability of the constructed subsidiary weir at Taunsa barrage is to be studied to establish its role in the barrage operation. This research indicated that both the barrages have distinct energy dissipation mechanism; therefore the provision of subsidiary weirs may independently be justified. The study revealed that the energy dissipation system at Taunsa Barrage is jump type, whereas it is impact/jump type at Jinnah barrage. Tail water levels at Taunsa barrage are adequate indicating that the subsidiary weir was not required. The proposed subsidiary weir at Jinnah barrage would change energy dissipation concept and will have serious hydraulic consequences. Furthermore, the subsidiary weir adversely affects hydraulic functioning of these barrages and reduces their discharging capacity|
|8.||The Jinnah Barrage Rehabilitation Project – Prospects and Concerns. Volume XX Issue 3 December 2009, International Water Power & Dam Construction and Dam Engineering|
The Jinnah Barrage is one of the important diversion structures recommended for modernization. A feasibility study on the barrage proposed the construction of a subsidiary weir, 800ft (244m) downstream of the barrage as the main rehabilitation structure. The Design Consultants proposed replenishment of loose stone at stable slope as an Alternative 1 to the subsidiary weir. Furthermore, a second stilling basin was proposed in the weir section of the barrage as an Alternative 2. Both solutions were tested on a physical model, developed at the Irrigation Research Institute (IRI), Nandipur, Pakistan.
Subsequently, design consultants proposed a third alternative – a subsidiary weir to be constructed across the river 600ft (183m) from the barrage crest. The existing divide walls will be extended to the bifurcate weir and undersluices sections of the barrage.
The rehabilitation scenarios proposed by the feasibility study and the design consultants would have different hydraulic impacts to the existing structure. The purpose of this research paper therefore is to discuss the prospects and concerns of the various rehabilitation scenarios, and what impact they would have on the barrage operation and safety.
Hydraulic/Structural Deficiencies at the Taunsa Barrage.
Pakistan Journal Science, Vol 61, No 3, September 2009.
|Taunsa barrage has been rehabilitated by constructing a subsidiary weir at 800 ft distance from the barrage crest. The stilling basin floor was strengthened by replacing 2 ft top layer with 3 ft thick, high strength structural concrete, whereas the impact and friction blocks were replaced by chute blocks and end sill, respectively. While designing rehabilitation project at Jinnah barrage the Detail Design Consultants proposed a similar structure, the subsidiary weir to be constructed at 600 ft form the barrage crest. Arguments have emerged regarding hydraulic justification of subsidiary weir being proposed at the Jinnah barrage. It looks imperative that the energy dissipation systems of both the barrages are to be reviewed. Furthermore, suitability of the constructed subsidiary weir at Taunsa barrage is to be studied to establish its role in the barrage operation. This research indicated that both the barrages have distinct energy dissipation mechanism; therefore the provision of subsidiary weirs may independently be justified. The study revealed that the energy dissipation system at Taunsa Barrage is jump type, whereas it is impact/jump type at Jinnah barrage. Tail water levels at Taunsa barrage are adequate indicating that the subsidiary weir was not required. The proposed subsidiary weir at Jinnah barrage would change energy dissipation concept and will have serious hydraulic consequences. Furthermore, the subsidiary weir adversely affects hydraulic functioning of these barrages and reduces their discharging capacity.|
|10||Physical Model Studies of Energy Dissipation Systems to Rehabilitate the Jinnah Barrage. Pak. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci. Vol. 5, July2009.||A subsidiary weir was proposed by feasibility consultants to rehabilitate and modernize Jinnah Barrage. Subsidiary weir location and crest level was finally fixed on the basis of a detailed physical model study. This model study was carried by Irrigation Research Institute (IRI) at their Lahore laboratory under the technical guidance of “Feasibility Consultants”. The “Detailed Design Consultants” while finalizing rehabilitation structure (either subsidiary weir or its alternative) requested IRI for another model study, which was carried out at Nandipur Research Station. It seems that the two model studies were under taken for the same project, having almost similar objectives. This paper critically reviews the judiciousness of two model studies carried out for the same project. Furthermore, the experimental results of various rehabilitation alternatives are also discussed in terms of their reliability and effectiveness.|
|11||Hydraulics of Jinnah Barrage; Existing Structure and Rehabilitation Alternatives. Pak. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci. Vol. 4, Jan 2009 (p.66-73).||Feasibility study on “Rehabilitation and Modernization of Jinnah Barrage” completed in Year 2005, proposed subsidiary weir with crest at EL676, to be constructed across the river, at a distance of about 800 ft, downstream of the barrage to address energy dissipation problems. The crest level of proposed subsidiary weir (EL676) is lower by 2 ft and higher by 1 ft as compared with crest level of weir and undersluices sections of the barrage, respectively. A detailed surface flow analysis was carried out using computer software HEC-RAS for the existing structure, the proposed subsidiary weir and its alternatives, to optimize rehabilitation works. This paper discusses the calibration of HEC-RAS model, the surface flow hydraulics of subsidiary weir and its alternatives.|
|12||Energy Dissipation Problems Downstream of Jinnah Barrage. Pak. J. Engg. & Appl. Sci. Vol. 3, Jan 2009 (p.19-25).||Jinnah barrage is one of these barrages recommended by the Evaluation Consultants for rehabilitation and modernization works. Feasibility study for “Rehabilitation and Modernization of the Jinnah Barrage” noted that the hydraulic jump do not form over the glacis rather sweeps on the floor. The un-dissipated energy is causing damage to the impact blocks, the adjacent concrete floor and downstream loose stone apron. Feasibility consultants suggested curative measures, such as the construction of subsidiary weir at a distance of about 800ft downstream of the barrage and river training works upstream of the barrage. The finalization of rehabilitation works (either subsidiary weir or its alternative) is in progress and subsequently the detail design of the selected alternative will be carried out. The main focus in this study is to review previous studies/investigations, energy dissipation mechanism, river survey, sounding and probing data to establish the extent of damages and precisely the root cause for the damages.|
Punjab Barrages – Hydraulic Deficiencies and Rehabilitation Solutions.
Pakistan Journal of Water Resources, Vol. 13, No.2 July-December2009.
|Irrigation and Power Department, Government of Punjab, has planned to rehabilitate and modernize its barrages. A project entitled as, “Rehabilitation and Modernization of Barrages in Punjab” has been launched with the financial assistance of World Bank under which Taunsa barrage has already been modernized. The major rehabilitation work undertaken is the construction of a subsidiary weir at the downstream of the Taunsa barrage. Arguments have emerged regarding problems identification and technical/financial rationalities of provision of subsidiary weir, whereas the feasibility/detail design to rehabilitate and modernize some of the remaining barrages are in progress. The paper critically reviews hydraulic/structural deficiencies at the barrages in Punjab and propose solutions/guidelines to optimize rehabilitation works.|
A two-zone model of longitudinal dispersion in channels with idealized pools and riffles.
Proc. 68th Annual Session of Pakistan Engineering Congress, Jan.2001
|A one-dimensional two-zone mathematical model, comprising a pair of advection-dispersion equations coupled by a mass exchange term, is proposed to study longitudinal dispersion in channels with sequences of pools and riffles. An implicit finite-difference numerical scheme is employed, and its effectiveness is assessed with reference to known analytical solutions. Moreover, sets of longitudinal dispersion experiments were performed on various simple geometries of sequences of pools and riffles developed in a laboratory flume. The results were compared with corresponding numerical solutions to calibrate the two-zone model.|
Implementation of participatory irrigation management in Pakistan: its engineering, management and financial aspects.
Proc. 68th Annual Session of Pakistan Engineering Congress, Jan.2001
|The institutional reforms consist of introduction of Participatory Irrigation Management (PIM), first time in Pakistan. This paper describes about the scope of implementation of PIM with particular reference to engineering, legal and financial aspects of irrigation system of Pakistan.|
Hydraulic model studies for hydropower projects. (Taunsa hydropower project- A case study).
International Conference, Bern, Switzerland, HYDRO-2000.
|Hydraulic model study is one of the most important tools for technical finalization of the feasibility study of the proposed hydropower projects. In this paper hydraulic model study for proposed Taunsa hydropower has been discussed.|
Computational modeling of turbulent dispersion in open channel flow.
Journal Institution of Engineers, Malaysia. Vol. 59, No. 1, 1998.
|This paper proposes a one-dimensional two-zone dispersion model for open channel flow. Solutions of numerical scheme have good agreement with the laboratory measurements.|
|18||Composite double layer bridge-grids. Forth International Conference on Space Structures, University of Surrey, Sept, 1993.||Structural behavior of composite double layer bridge-grids has been investigated using stiffness method and other two analytical methods; girder analogy and plate analogy methods. These structures are composed of steel skeletal frames and RCC top slab|
Double layer bridge-grids in highway bridges.
Proc. of APSEC, 92, University Technology Malaysia, Sept, 92.
|In order to study the behavior and effectiveness of double layer bridge-grids, a model was made and tested under two types of loading; modified uniformly distributed loading and mid-span loading consisting of two point loads. The experimental results of the model are compared with the solutions of two analytical methods; girder and plate analogies to assess their validity for analysis of such structures.|
Structural behavior of composite double layer bridge-grids with various span/depth ratios.
Journal of Institute of Engineers, Pakistan. April, 1991
|In this paper, study of the structure with various span / depth ratios is conducted besides introduction of unit stiffness relationships required for the plate analogy solutions.|
Concrete materials and their efficiency in construction projects.
International Conference on Concrete Engineering and Technology (Concert’91), University of Malaya, 59100 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
|An investigation has been made to study the role of concrete materials and applied problems on the efficiency of construction projects in Pakistan. It is noted that ill-planning of procurement causes considerable delay in construction schedule which leads towards the increase in the overall cost.|
MY RESEARCH SUPERVISION:
|Areas of Supervision||.|
|Student Name||Research Topic||Affiliation|
|Student Name||Research Topic||Affiliation|
|PhD thesis supervised Kaleem Sarwar 27-02-2019||Hybrid modeling of Aerators for Orifice Spillways||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|2012-MS-CEH-04||Assessment of Sustainable Ground Water Extraction Rate for Quetta City using Modflow.||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|2012-MS-CEH-23||Optimization of HydroPower Potential at the Gomal Canal Falls||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|96-M.Sc.- Civil-35 Zahid Majeed||Simulation of Sedimentation Process at Taunsa Barrage Using HEC-6||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|2002-MS-Civil-HIE-24 Muhammad Adan Zia||Design Review and Performance Evaluation of River Training Works on River Sutlej||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|2003-MS- HIE-Civil-24 Yasir Abbas||Hydraulic Design of Outlet Structures (A Case Study of Satpara Dam).||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|2004-MS-Civil-HIE-82 Syed Iftikhar Ahmad||Seepage and Uplift Pressure Analysis for Conveyance Canal Akhori Dam||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|2002/II- MS-HIE-C-26 Sabir Hussain||Seepage and Uplift Studies for Tyrolean Weirs, A Case Study of QHPP,||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|2004-MS-C-S-65 Muhammad Jawaad||Structural design review of Satpara dam spillway.||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|2004-M.Sc.- Civil-HIE-25 Engineer Manzoor||Seepage and Uplift Studies of Jinnah Barrage Under Various Rehabilitation Scenarios||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|2005-MS-C-HYD-37 Muhammad Imran||Numerical Simulation of Surge Chamber for Duber Khwar Hydropower Project||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Course Information (Name/Code)||Year Taught||Program (BS/MS/PhD)||University /Institute|
|Fluid Mechanics I||3rd Semester 2nd year||BS Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Fluid Mechanics II||5th Semester 3rd Year||BS Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Hydraulics & Irrigation Engineering||7th Semester 4th Year||BS Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Mechanics of Materials||3rd Semester 2nd year||BS Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Elementary Structure Analysis||4th semester 2nd Year||BS Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Plain & Reinforced Concrete||6th Semester 3rd Year||BS Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Hydraulic Engineering||7th Semester 4th Year||BS Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Irrigation Engineering||8th Semester 4th Year||BS Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Hydraulic Structures||1st Year||MSC Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Hydro Power Engineering||1st Year||MSC Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Fluid Mechanics||2nd Year||MSC Civil Engineering||University of Engineering & Technology Lahore|
|Irrigation & Hydraulics Structures||6th Semester||BS Civil Engineering||University of Gujrat|